Historical Studies Quarterly, No. 29, Summer 2010



“The Islamic Revolution historiography is evaluated as a phenomenon which is making headway. Analyzing the last 32 years’ attempts by researchers and history research institutes shows they have been making progress in the number of books and their quality about the Islamic Revolution.”
The new issue of Historical Studies Quarterly starts with this evaluation about Islamic Revolution Historiography. In the foreword of this issue we read “although the number of book in general history is low but the documentary and memoirs books are outnumbered.” It has also considered theoretical studies about revolution in abroad far beyond the studies carried on inside Iran. It has also considered 6 reasons to show the importance of presenting the content and character of a domestic theory in this regard by intellectuals inside Iran.
The abstracts of the articles for this issue are as follow:

The Strangest Story
Hadj Sheikh Ja'far Shahi

Ayatollah Hadj Seyyed Noor-ud-din Shirazi was born in 1895 and spent his childhood in Shiraz. At teen ages he went to Najaf in Iraq and became the student of instructors such as Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Kazem Tabataba'i Yazdi, Ayatollah Agha Seyyed Zia'-ud-din 'Eraqi, Ayatollah Na'ini, Ayatollah Seyyed Ab-ul-hassan Esfahani, Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Kazem Shirazi, Ayatollah Sheikh Mohammad Taqi Ha'eri Shirazi and Ayatollah Sheikh Fat'h-ullah Namazi Shirazi. He returned back to Shiraz in 1925 after finishing his studies and becoming a Mojtahed. He knew English and French and was experienced in social affairs and philosophy. He was a man of knowledge and literature and also politics. He knew painting too. His social and political activities during 1925-1956 made him one of famous cleric figures in Fars and Southern Persia. In thirty years period he played an important role political and social developments of Fars province and turned into an effective figure. In 1926 when "the Persian secretary of British Consulate in Shiraz was "drunk" and started to shout near the holy shrine of Ahmad ibn-e Moosa (P.U.H), he decided to punish him based on religious rules publicly." This matter made him to be banished to Bushehr. It brought the reaction of Bazaar in Shiraz. After a public protest, the government was forced to bring him back. Hadj Sheikh Ja'far Shahi, as a witness of the event is about to describe this bloody event. These memoirs are written under the title of "The Strangest Story".

 
The impacts if American Attach to Iraq on Radjavi's Group
An analysis by research unit

Before writing about the impacts of American attack to Iraq on Mujahedin organization, it is necessary to analyze the importance of Iraq for the organization. The following paragraphs could have been able to show part of this importance:
1- How "Modern War" strategy's fate and efficiency is tied with the Iraqi Government.
2-  Rajavi group support for the Ba'th party regime until the last days
3- Disarmament negotiations and surrender
4- 12-articles message by Rajavi after Saddam's fall
5- The decision by Iraqi governing council for expelling Rajavi group from Iraq
6- The Revolution of Fighting Dog
7- The returning trend of the group members to Iran and the troops downfall

The Political Struggles of Ayatollah Beheshti
Samaneh Bayrami

Iranian Islamic Revolution was one of great events of 20th century. A revolution which made a great change in world affairs and could challenge all the governing attitudes toward the world, man, and different human relations in political, economic, cultural and social arenas. Undoubtedly Iranian people revolution would never success without the efforts by Imam Khomeini and his devotee students. These students were the one who delivered the Imam's messages to people and informed others in different aspects. In this article the writer has tried to present review on Ayatollah Beheshti's life; one of Imam Khomeini's students who had a great role in Islamic Revolution of Iran. As Imam has said, he was nation all by himself alone and during life he tried to keep balance and rationality beside his revolutionary spirit. Presenting all the aspects of the life of a personality like Ayatollah Beheshti is a very hard job. Considering the vast domain of the subject, this article concentrates on his political struggles during Pahlavi era.

 
Goharshad Uprising, Backgrounds and Trend
Hassan Shamsabadi

Gogoharshad uprising can be considered as the opposition by Mashhad clergy against secularist attempts of Reza Khan. When he stabilized his government, began to execute what he had in mind as symbols of progress and social ascend in order not to be behind the European countries. He knew unveiling women as the starting point in Iranian people's progress. So after his trip to Turkey, by unveiling women he tried to get Iran closer to civilization borders (!) by irritating Ataturk and Amanullah Khan methods in Turkey and Afghanistan who have taken the first steps in this regard before.
Unveiling women in Iran whose people are religious believers brought about a series of oppositions. The news of Shiraz feast, assaulting Hessam-ud-din Fal-asiri and the exile of two clergies from Tabriz, made Ayatollah Hussein Qumi, the grand ayatollah of Khorasan district oppose unveiling process. He traveled to Tehran and the discussed the matter with Reza khan.
His siege in Seraj-ul-molk garden in Rey made his family and Mashhad people annoyed. When Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Bohloul arrived in Mashhad and was informed about the events, he went to Imam Reza shrine and condemned Ayatollah Qumi's siege and persuaded people to support him in a speech.
The news of taking refuge in the harem angered and also some hoe frightened Reza Khan. He ordered the military governor of Mashhad to scatter people by any mean.
The first raid by the military happened in the morning of July 11th 1935. Killing people made 8 clergies sent a telegraph to Reza Khan and asked to stop implying unveiling rule and finishing the matter. However, Reza Khan lordly ignored them and ordered the soldiers to enter the shrine and even shoot the people.
When the attempts by the clergies to negotiate with the government officials turned out to be fruitless, the military raided Imam Reza shrine on Sunday July 14th 1935 and a number of people who had taken refuge there were shot dead. After the Goharshad uprising, the regime in an irrational attempt arrested a number of clergies; some of them immigrated and ran away; some were banished; some were fired from governmental pasts; the houses of the people who had given shelter to people were destroyed and …

 
A look over Iranian POWs in Iraq
Gholam Reza Raf'at Nezhad

"… among civil prisoners there are Oil Minister and General Manager of Oil in Ahwaz who have made problems; the reason is keeping them red solitary confinement for a long time…"
Iraqi Intelligence Interrogation Director

This article surveys the situation of Iraqi camps, the military inside, their geographical position, food and clothes, sport facilities, POWs settlement, prison environment, interrogation methods, tortures, and some unpublished documents about this matter.

 
The effective factors in the expansion of military relations between Iran and USA during Nixon's government and the its consequences
Morteza Boreshandeh

During Nixon's government the world was in a situation that weak countries became the scene for the superpowers rivalry. Iran was present in the front line of this rivalry because of her special situation. During 1970s Iran became the political, economic and military center of the western block particularly USA. During WWII Mohammad Reza Shah had seen his father observed how the superpowers of that time, UK and USSR destroyed his army and dethroned him. Mohammad Reza Shah did not want to have the same fate. So he got closer to the Americans and they were also looking for a base in Middle East. They warmly accepted him and consequently the relations between two countries grew more and more. After 1953 coup, he was more interested in the US.
The last phase in closeness between Iran and the US was shaped by the beginning of Nixon government. Nixon became the president at the time when there was a big gap between different layers of American society. Economic depression inside and wars outside faced the US with a critical situation. He entered the White House by promising to solve all these problems. Considering the internal situation and international threats and also internal conditions in Iran, these relations reached to its highest level in political, economic and military affairs.
In this article the writer had tried to concentrate on the military relations that have been the most important one too in this period. This article has two parts. The first part expresses the effective factors in this period on the expansion of military relations between Iran and the US that are divided in two groups of internal and external. In internal factors, the power structure in Iran, deep interest of Shah in militarism and buying arms are explained and in external factors, Vietnam War, British departure from Persian Gulf that resulted in Nixon doctrine, Nixon's trip to Iran, the raise of oil prices that resulted in arms exports to Iran increase and finally the mutual interests are discussed. In the second part, the outcomes of raise in military relations between two countries are expressed that is divided in three sections: Iran as the gendarme of Middle East, increase in the number of American military advisers n Iran, and finally the appearance of arm dealers and the consequent corruption in Iranian society.

B.Eng. Mahdi Bazargan and Dr. Ali Shari'ati, two Icons of Religious Intellectuality
Hamid Reza Esma'ili

During 1940s and afterwards, we observe the appearance of a generation of educated intellectuals who gradually were known as "Religious Intellectuals". Religious intellectuality in Iran is an outcome of historical events after the Constitutional Movement and a reaction to the past events. Religious intellectual on one side believes in religious ideas and culture and opposed to the secularization of the 1st Pahlavi and the first generation of intellectuals as Melkom Khan and Kasravi; and on the other side wants to present an interpretation of religion which is compatible with the present discourse and rationality.
1940s is the time when country is free of Reza Khan's dictatorship but still involved with frantic secularization policies of Pahlavi regime. In this period, both groups, i.e. religious and west-oriented intellectuals started theorizing and presenting their ideas. B.Eng. Bazargan was one of pioneers in religious intellectuals in this period. The Passed Path is his most famous book in this period that shows the writers mind clearly. Although he changed some of his ideas later but the foundation of his thoughts in this book remained the same to the end of his life.
His thoughts characteristics were in a way that gradually changed him to a religious intellectual and indebted the later coming intellectuals. After the Islamic Revolution, particularly after 1997 a kind of religious intellectuality promulgated that talked with his thinking paradigm and discourse. Thus, Bazargan was the creator of a kind of religious intellectuality that covered a vast domain of intellectuals. These people considered "liberty" as the highest concept and preferred it to values as "justice". They also chose "reformism" instead of "revolution", at in theoretical thoughts. Based on the above, chronologically speaking, Bazargan should be considered as an icon and a pioneer of religious intellectuality in Iranian history.
However, in 1960s when revolutionary movements with Islamic ideologies among urban people found a special status, another influential character emerged in religious intellectuality who presented another tradition on religious intellectuality with himself. Dr. Ali Shari'ati with his revolutionary emphasizing on "justice" presented a coherent intellectual pattern which is still effective in intellectual developments in Iran after decades. After him, different people used his paradigm for expressing their thoughts. They all were common in seeking Islam, justice, and revolution.
This article tries to recognize the main characteristics of these two traditions of religious intellectuality that seek "liberty" and "justice" by referring to the writings of B.Eng. Bazargan and Dr. Shari'ati.

No comment Documents:

No comment documents are presented in two sections:
a) The effort along with appeal to God; a brief explanation about the efforts of Allameh Amini for collecting Alghadir in his own words.
b) Israeli reporters in Iran; a description of Israeli reporters' discretion over collecting films from different places of Iran under the name of other countries.



 
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