Put the burden of the revolution on my shoulders to carry it so that I get target!

Documentary Narration of the Life of Fatimah Homayoun Based on Oral History

Compiled by: Jafar Golshan Roghani
Translated by: Fazel Shirzad


"She had been attending in meetings held by Ayatollah Beheshti for some time. In these meetings, little by little, her own speech's content was changed. One day she brought home some forbidden books, one of which was Ayatollah Khomeini's treatise. Through these meetings, Fatimah became aware of Ayatollah Khomeini, who called him "Sir", and followed his speeches from Najaf. One day when she was returning home from a lecture, she felt that several people were pursuing her. She ignored them and entered the house and closed the door. She hurried to the dining room. She said something to one of the daughters; it was not long before the daughters hid the Khomeini's treatise and books in the stove. From that day on, Fatimah found a permanent place to hide books, i.e. a useless refrigerator in the kitchen. She embedded the books in such a way that, according to the girls, nobody could not reach them. ” (P. 55)

The above sentences are part of Ms. Shirin Zarepour's writing describing the life and activities of a woman fighter and political, religious, and social activist before and after the Islamic Revolution, who was martyred in 1996 by anti-revolutionary elements in Kurdistan. Ms. Zarehpour write his book entitled "Angel without wings: A documentary about the life of Fatimah Homayoun Moghadam (mother of martyr Nasser Abduli)" has interviewed people, relatives, and close friends. By mentioning the names of the interviewees at the beginning of each chapter, she tries to document the strength of the material and the validity of his narrative to the data of oral history, because imagination is an important element in any fiction.

According to the content of the book, Ms. Fatimah Homayoun Moghadam was born at the end of April of 1941 in Kooshak alley, "Mahalla Square", Azarshahr [city], East Azerbaijan [province]. While in her teens and studying at Roshanak School, Karamali Abduli, who later changed her surname to Abdali, proposed to her. Karamali had a thrift shop. He saw her in her shop and loved her: "The girl had come to buy a sewing-cotton, and Karamali looked at her carefully ... Karamali opened the door and asked: should it be the color of your eyes?" The girl felt ashamed. Karmali's question also remained unanswered. Now he fell in love with the girl... Now the one who has attracted Karamali's heart is Fatimah, the first daughter of Sheikh Saqqa. It was a love story. He could not ignore her ... although she did not show any tendency to him, he was not disappointed for his lack of tendency. Eventually, he requested and proposed to her until [her father,] Sheikh Saqqa was satisfied to come his home and propose” (p. 14). For the wedding, a celebration was held for seven days and nights in Karamali's father's house.

Fatimah Sheikh Saqqa was the daughter of Mr. Yousef Ali and Ms. Leila (Khanom Jan), who later changed her last name to Homayoun Moghadam, following in the footsteps of her brother Mohammad (which was also done by her father Yousef Ali and all Homayoun Moghadam's family). Her father was a high-ranking civil staff in Azarshahr city, a government employee, and a religious man. His children remember a childhood in which they used to hear the sound of the Qur'an and the prayers of their father at home. Every Thursday, a Quran meeting was held at his house, and most of the Thursdays he went to Tabriz to attend Ayatollah Seyyed Assadollah Madani's lecture hall. (P. 13). Her father's religious activities and pieces of training at home caused Fatimah to memorize most of the chapters of the Qur'an before the age of nine. In addition to Muhammad as the older brother, she had five sisters named Masoumeh, Khadijeh, Sakineh, Amina, and Roghayeh, and another brother named Hussein. Less than a year after the marriage, Fatimah's first child named Nasser was born on December 14th of 1955 in Azarshahr city, East Azerbaijan province. A few months in May 1956, they immigrated to Tehran, by insisting on Karamali, and settled in one of the rooms of Karamali's sister's house. Karamali also worked in a stationery shop in Tehran Bazaar. After a while, they bought a house in the Naziabad neighborhood of Tehran (after the first bazaar and after the square) and moved in there; Mr. Aqababa and Ms. Baba (Karamali's parents) came to Tehran and settled in a room in the corner of his yard. "No one was better than Ms.Leila for Fatimah. But since Ms. Baba came, Fatimah has felt less alone. She was a kind lady. She had been educated in Quran School. He used to pray most of the time. He worked with her weak body from morning till evening. She believed Mr. Baba a lot. Once Fatimah asked her, "Who is the source of your religious imitation?" He did hastate and said:" said Aqaba "(pp. 21 and 22)

Her second child, Nasrin, was born on October 1, 1958 and his third child, Parvin, was born in Tehran on the April of 17th, 1960. Following Karamali's encouragement, sometime after Nasrin gave birth, Fatimah continued her education until she graduated. After giving birth, Parvin also went to a sewing class to sew her own children's clothes. On the other hand, her husband's financial situation was being improved, as she took the sales agency Bic pen factory. The increase of Karamali's social prestige and economic power caused him to have more relations with mosque scholars. (P. 28)

In 1963, the fourth child was born and named Mohammad Reza. In 1965, they changed their house again in the same neighborhood of Naziabad. This time, when Karamali's parents went to a house in the Shokoofeh area, they bought three-floor houses and were among the people who lit up their place and house during mid-Sha'ban (a Muslim holiday) and entertained the gusts with juices and sweets. In the same year, Fatimah and her husband went on the obligatory pilgrimage.  As long as Fatimah was alive, as she had intended for The Fourteen Infallibles (PBUH), she went on the obligatory pilgrimage for 13 more times. (P. 36)

The pilgrimage had a great impact on Fatimah. "After meeting Ms. Mirdamad during the pilgrimage, she decided to enter the seminary in Qom. Karamali did not object to his studying. He also accompanied her. It was not long before she decided to change the children's names as well. She wanted the names of Nasrin and Parvin to have the surnames of Zahra (PBUH). For this reason, after that, she called Nasrin "Mansoura" and Parvin "Ensieh". He prays with his Hajj clothes. She was so bright that when she stood up to pray, Mansoura became amazed ... her lessons were becoming difficult every day when she wanted to go to his teacher Haj Mr. Shahab to study, Karamali would go along with her. Ms. Fatimah used to wait behind the curtain and Karamali next to the teacher until the lesson was over and they returned home together. Karamali had bought her a small tape recorder that sometimes recorded the master's voice. It was in a complicated place where Fatimah was studying religion, so one-day several local women came to her house to learn the Qur'an. At least the three-floor house in Naziabad became a classroom, a lecture hall, and a shrine. Gradually the number of students increased to the point where they sat in the yard and alley. "This made Karamali think of buying bigger houses." (Pp. 37 and 38)

In addition to affecting her personal life, Fatimah's mental and intellectual changes also affected those around her. After a while, she went to her father's house in Miandoab city, where they had moved years before Azarshahr city, and asked her younger sister, Amina, to hold noon congregational prayers with the small and large children in the neighborhood. Fatimah performed the night prayer at her father's house and Amina followed his works. For the marriage of her brother Muhammad, in which the ceremony was usually accompanied by musical instruments, songs, and dances, she put aside all these customs and sent the bride to her husband's house with greetings and blessings (p. 40).

While Fatimah was pregnant for her fifth child, she went on the pilgrimage for the second time and gave birth to Mohammad Hassan in Amin Hospital in Tehran in September 1968.

Karamali changed the house again and bought and rebuilt a 300-meter one-floor house (after the power station on Park Street in front of the Helgano Express Laundry, No. 31). During the construction of this house, Karamali "had three large rooms with wooden doors for the time when the prayers and lectures were to be held."The doors were built in such a way that when they were removed, the rooms became a wide hall." (P. 43) One of the rooms in the house was devoted to sewing to attract more young people. In addition, he took candle-making and handicraft classes such as making floristry and sewing sequins on clothes. Thus, it turned it into a school for students, on the condition that "anyone who wanted to use art classes had to attend classes on Quran interpretation and religious rulings ... In addition, homeless and abused women were introduced to Fatimah for self-sufficiency and entrepreneurship." Many young people came to Naziabad's house to listen to Fatimah's lectures and lessons. In the month of Muharram, whenever possible, prayers and speeches were held one after the other, and after that, it continued until the end of the month Safar. Every year, a few nights before the first of Muharram, the house was prepared for these two months. He was lecturing and fasting with Fatimah. Sometimes he would invite a speaker. He had made room for a pulpit in front of the entrance, but he had heard from many that no one could take her place in the lecture. The crowd was so large that they even sat in the yard. The months of Muharram and Safar ceremonies were much busier than other times. "It's so crowded that it looks like a demonstration has started from the house and continues to the alley." (Pp. 43 and 44)

With the increasingly growing number of religious assemblies, Fatimah decided to continue her activities in an organized manner. Therefore, although all the members of the family helped to hold religious ceremonies lectures, Fatimah thought that: "she should receive an honorary volunteer staff and help from the teenage girls who come for the ceremonies." He also asked Karamali to make a metal logo with the words "Zahra's (PBUH)" Staff" written on it. There were so many volunteer staffs that they were selected by lot. There was no difference between hijab and no hijab in choosing the staff. Fatimah was kind for everyone. When a girl entered the house without hijab, some people expected Fatimah to suggest her not to come there again, but Fatimah would face them openly so that they would change after a short time. Most of the girls who were once members of the Naziabad house's crew became experienced teachers after studying in the seminary”(pp. 44 and 45). Mojtahedi, Bagherpour, Vafamehr, and Hosseinipour were among these girls. Once one of the girls asked Fatimah: "Why should we wear uniforms? Fatimah smiled and while looking kindly at the girl's face, said: "so that the meeting does not become a fashion salon." All Muharram servants wore long black blouses with black scarves and trousers and a logo on their chests." Other times, a beautiful sarong with a cloche skirt or a skirt with a white blouse that is all the same color." (P. 53)

Fatimah's religious and propaganda activities led her to "start recording speech in other cities." She recorded speeches that were about the book Jameh-al-Moghadamat and sent them to Miandoab, Maragheh, and other cities. Thus, women who could not enter the seminary began the book Jameh-al-Moghadamat. Every year they also had taziyeh on the first decade of Muharram. Everyone helped to perform the taziyeh in the best way ... In the months of Muharram and Safar, which ended, these daily and weekly meetings continued until the month of Ramadan. Daily recitation of the Qur'an and interpretation. Ghadr nights brought the locals together. The water heater was ready for those who had forgotten to perform the recommended ablution on the night of revival” (pp. 47-45)

In this way, she trained many religiously. In addition, after the efforts of Karamali and several sellers in the first bazaar of Naziabad, the "Hosseinieh of Tabriz people living in Tehran" was established; some nights the delegation was set up in the house of Karamali and Fatimah under the efforts of all family members.

The author of the book talks about the greater influence of Fatimah Homayoun Moghaddam on other people, especially the women of the society, and tells the story of the presence of a dancer woman in her house, who repented and took the path of chastity, in detail on pages 50-52. "From that day on, she became one of Fatimah's constant followers. It was as if her behavior had been changed completely.She repented and learned from Fatimah to pray. After that, every time he came, she wore a black tent and had an account. There was no more news of that awkward make-up and clothes. She used to ask for religious rules and a way of compensation. No one was allowed to enter the room when she arrived. Whoever came into the room with curiosity, Fatimah interrupted and asked her to leave the room. After that, the number of private meetings increased. "The women who may have entered Fatimah's house by a dancing woman changed their appearance after a few private sessions and became someone else."

In Quran teaching sessions, Fatimah tried to dominate the enthusiasts of the word of revelation in reading and knowing the Qur'an. "One night all the girls went to bed. Susan Yarmohammadi woke up by someone's sound of mournful prayers and turned her eyes around. She found Fatimah praying. When she prayed at night shed tears all over his face. After that, Susan waited for the sound of Fatimah's prayers every night at that time. Although she was not old, she wanted to pray like Zahra (PBUH). she learned the night prayer from her. In the middle of the night, she wore special clothe and stood for prayer. Just like Zahra (PBUH). She learned to read the Quran from Zahra (PBUH). It started from the beginning of the Quran In less than a month or two, Fatimah handed over one of the Qur'anic classes to Susan. She tested her and then gave the responsibility one of the classes to her to teach the women.”(P. 52).

The author's first words and phrases about Fatimah Homayoun Moghadam's political activities against the Pahlavi government are mentioned on page 53 of the book, based on the content of the interview with Ms. Susan Yarmohammadi: “Susan Yarmohammadi had met Fatimah through her sisters. She said that from the first day she came to this house, seeing the luminous and sacred face of Ms. Fatimah, a great change was created in her. Farah Institute was her school. After familiarity with Fatimah, he went to school wearing a headscarf. It was the school where one of the famous TV singers came and taught ballet to the girls. There was the school meeting hall where was the dance and singing hall, and the discovery of dancing and singing talent in. Shah and Farah also came there once or twice to inspect the institute. The next evening, when Susan went to Heshmat al-Dawla with Fatimah, she heard something new that she had not heard until that day. The car stopped in front of the door. Fatimah got in the car while she was wearing a veil and Susan was behind her. They both sat back in the car. The driver's wife was also sitting in the front and wearing a veil. It was not long before the driver's wife lifted her veil. He asked Fatimah about Imam Khomeini. Fatimah told her aboyut Najaf and exiled Imam.

Susan was staring at Fatimah's lips, from which the words colonial and tyranny could be heard. It turned out that this family had political prisoners, who also talked about SAVAK and the prison. The driver reached Heshmat al-Dawla Street. He stopped in front of a big house. All three got off the car. The woman led Fatimah and Susan into the house. You could find from the ladies sitting in chairs in aristocratic clothes around the room that they were not very familiar with the traditional atmosphere of the day. Fatimah went to the stage they had prepared for her. Sitting on a chair [for a speech]. ” (Pp. 53 and 54) Her presence in the meetings of nature Beheshti is also discussed. Meetings that led her to the political and cultural struggle against the Pahlavi regime until the victory of the Islamic Revolution. Leaving mixed and non-religious schools was one of the recommendations that Homayoun Moghadam gave to the girls present at the meetings and their families. Of course, he reminded them to go to Islamic schools, especially those established by Sheikh Abbas Ali Eslami (the founder of the Islamic Teaching Society), or to study religious sciences in seminaries. While she liked the Narges Islamic School, where the lack of a TV at home was a prerequisite, she enrolled his daughters, Mansoura and Ensieh, to attend middle school at the Imamiyya Maiden School in Shapur Square, which was an Islamic school. She also sent Nasser to Jafari Islamic School. She was not unaware of the religious upbringing of his children; as she taught her daughters Mansoura and Ensieh, teachers of the Qur'an and religious sciences and religious speakers.

The author of the book has not neglected to express the aspects of housekeeping, marriage, and motherhood of Fatimah and referred to these issues everywhere in the book. She also pays attention to Homayoun Moghaddam's social activities and mentions her efforts to marry religious girls and boys to each other and to help the needy people.

In June 1971, Mansoura, who was not more than 13 years old and was in the seventh grade, married Mr. Hassan Ameli, who was an army officer and served in Torbat-e Jam. Two years later, their wedding will take place. Her husband's father was a cleric who supported and imitated Imam Khomeini.

In September 1973, with the publication of the list of entrance exams, Nasser was accepted to both the American Scholarship and the Computer High School, which was established that year on Zafar Street in the Gholhak region. (P. 76) Nasser was awarded a scholarship by the United States and became one of the first students to study in this field in Iran; A non-profit university under the supervision of SAVAK. Fatimah, who was accepted in the theology department of the university, was under the supervision of SAVAK. "The arrests and detentions of SAVAK had increased. She heard the news from all over. They also instructed her to be very careful. SAVAK had been following her for some time. Sometimes he could hear the footsteps of two men behind her in the street. The faster he walked, the louder the sounds became. It was as if they were running and pursuing her. He used to talk about colonialism in meetings ... [her words] had caused her to be under more surveillance than before. "In the regular meeting, it was likely that one of the women would be a secret officer." (Pp. 77 and 78)

At the same time, she had regular lectures at Ms. Danesh's house on 12 Farvardin Street. Farideh, the daughter of the landlord, who was a student of Alavi School, was attracted to Fatimah and became one of her admirers and enthusiasts. Ms. Manzar Khair Habibollahi was also present at one of these meetings. She was arrested and imprisoned for one year for political activity sometime later in the fall of 1973. She was a teacher at the Welfare School and sometimes visited the Alavi School.

After Mansoura, Ensieh, Mohammad Reza, and Mohammad Hassan, on February 2, 1974, Fatimah gave birth to twin children named Maryam and Mehdi, who were named Haleh and Hamed in the birth certificate. Three months later, in the spring of 1974, one of the students of Fatimah religious meetings, named Fatimah Javaheri, who was originally from Babylon, proposed to Ensieh for her uncle. Ensieh married Ibrahim Mechanic, who is studying medicine, on the 27th of Rajab, the day of Mabas (prophetic mission). In 1975, during one of her lectures in the Narmak neighborhood and at Ms. Badiee's house, he met Mohammadpour's family and proposed to their only daughter named Zinat. Zinat was a 16-year-old student who married Nasser. On October 27th of 1976, at the same time as the birth of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), the wedding ceremony of Nasser and Zinat was held. (P. 88)

In the same year, in 1975, before the victory of the Revolution, Karamali sold the house of Naziabad and bought a thousand-meter villa in the Gohardasht area, Karaj province. He also sold his shop in Hazrati Bazaar and bought shops near his house in Gohardasht. It was not until a few months after the movement that Mehdi drowned in the pool. For this reason, sometime later, they sold it and bought another villa on the 10th street of Gohardasht.

Fatimah's strong religious beliefs made her sensitive even to her food and that of her children. You do not buy anything from a non-Muslim shop. He did not drink Pepsi drink, which was attributed to the Baha'is, and he avoided buying homemade drinks that were high in gas and caused a great deal of excitement among the children. To nurture the education of religious students, he established the seminary of Fatimah Al-Zahra (PBUH) in Naziabad, Tehran. (P. 86) In addition to educational activities and taking care of household and family affairs, he paid special attention to girls and women who took refuge in his home in various forms. "Sometimes she kept some of them at home for six months to a year or more, and protect them to grow up." Narges was a woman who was a singer and who repented in meetings and changed the course of her life ... there was another girl who came from Zanjan. There was no place to live. She was a student. Fatimah brought the girl home. It took him almost six months to transfer to their hometown. Whenever she wanted to help with household chores, Fatimah asked her to attend school." (P. 87)

She continued her seminary education for ten years, just as Maryam took her little daughter with her to seminary. (P. 89) In the same way, Maryam was with her when she went to the university class to study theology at the University of Tehran.

From page 91, the author begins the fifth chapter of the book entitled "A Revolutionary Woman", using the oral memoirs of six interviewees, to describe the political and revolutionary activities of Homayoun Moghadam and the events of the days before the Shah's escape from Iran and Fatimah's trip to Miandoab to visit his parents. According to the author, the protests caused Fatimah to try to lower the statue of the Shah from the main square of the city. She went to her sister's husband, Mr. Ataei, who was then the director of the city's justice office. "It's far from your personality and it is offensive," he told her. "You are here but the statue of the king is still stood up." (P. 91) According to the author, Mr. Ataei during a telephone call with the head of the city police said: "Honestly, my wife's sister came to Miandoab. It may provoke people to break the statue of the king or pull it down. Before this happens, you have to respectfully remove it. although The king has not gone yet and the situation is not very clear, you can predict the people's reaction and I know my sister's reaction. I know they react against you." (P. 92) By order of the police chief, the statue was removed from the main square of the city to calm the city. Thus, Miandoab is the only city in Iran where the statue of the Shah was not taken down by the people. Of course, Mr. Ataei had already arrested Karim Mehdi Gholi, one of the government-run ignoble people, in legal action. Together with his admirers, he fought against the demonstrators with clubs, clubs, swords and marched in the streets of the city, and confronted the revolutionaries.

When Fatimah went to her father's house in Miandoab, her speech meetings were held. In a critical speech against the Pahlavi government, she made her position clear. At the end of the meeting, the wife of the deputy governor of the city, who was one of the listeners, told her: "Well, you are speaking against His Majesty, Take care of yourself!" In response, Fatimah replied in a firm voice: "you were lucky because here is my father's house and you are a guest, otherwise I knew how to behave against you." The news of her speech caused the police chief to call Atai and say, "we are ordered to arrest your wife's sister" (p. 94). With this news, Fatimah left the city quickly and secretly and went to Maragheh. There, while she wearing a chador and wearing a veil, he spoke in Turkish against the Pahlavi government in one of the city's mosques. Police forces immediately set out to arrest her, but before they could arrive, Fatimah was escorted out of the mosque by a city architect in a colorful floral chador." To calm the city, they sent soldiers from the barracks. There was one sentence repeated in the police station, barracks and police station:" Fatimah Homayoun Moghaddam has destroyed the city. " (P. 95) she lectured in various cities and in many cases took Maryam and Mohammad Hassan with him, and always escaped by her friends when he was in danger of being arrested by SAVAK agents. Following her escape from a lecture hall in Tehran, SAVAK agents pursued her. She, who was running through the alleys one after the other with her daughter Maryam, was finally forced to hide in the water of one of the alleys until SAVAK agents were unable to find her and left. (Pp. 97 and 98) Of course, SAVAK agents raided her house several times, but could not find Imam Khomeini's proclamations in her house.

In addition to Maragheh and Miandoab and several cities in the provinces of East and West Azerbaijan, she also spoke in the cities of Bandar Abbas, Hamedan, and Chalous. She also sent his recorded voice to cities that did not have the opportunity to attend. Her sister Amina was in charge of distributing Fatimah tapes in the city of Chalous.

Nasser, son of Fatimah, was expelled from the University for Political Activities such as writing anti-Pahlavi slogans on the university wall and disrupting the self-service there. He was asked not to do anything against the king of the country until his expulsion order was revoked, but Nasser refused. (Pp. 99 and 100) He joined the army and, following the Imam's order that the soldiers disobey the government, escaped from the barracks in the December of 1978 and joined the revolutionaries.

In December and January of 1978, Fatimah's speeches multiplied, as she went to two cities on some days. She also started a march from Naziabad neighborhood until the victory of the Islamic Revolution.

After the victory of the Revolution, she joined the Islamic Republic Party as a preacher and went to the cities and villages of West Azerbaijan and Kurdistan. Her presence in these areas was a time when the Komala Party was active and declared autonomy and took up arms against the revolutionary forces. Assadullah Badamchian, as one of the party officials, convened a meeting following Karamali's dissatisfaction with Fatimah's visits to Kurdistan and fears that she would be killed by Komala forces. There, Fatimah explicitly insisted on her decision to continue her travels to Kurdistan, saying:" If I don’t go there, no one will do my duties in there. It takes courage to go there. It is hard work. No one has this courage. It needs knowledge and information and go there to guide people. If I don’t go there, many will be deceived and become members of Komala. Then the problem will be created for the revolution. I have a duty. My religious duty. I am one person, but if other women in the villages deviate, they will suffer corruption and destruction. I have a duty. It is a religious duty. I am one person, but if other women in the villages deviate, they will suffer corruption and destruction. My thought is the way to save them." Following the failure to conclude that meeting, at the suggestion of Mr. Badamchian, the final decision was made to obtain permission and about what we should do from Imam Khomeini. The Imam replied: "If it is the case that no one can be replaced by her and do her duty, and if there is not someone to do her job and the people might have deviated, she must leave and the dissatisfaction of her husband will not cause her not to leave" (p. 107).

    One of the notable events during Fatimah's studies at the Faculty of Theology, University of Tehran, was the assassination of martyr Mofteh on December 18, 1979. On that day, Fatimah was attended at the university, the Forqan group assassinated and martyred Dr. Mohammad Mofteh, a professor at the Faculty of Theology at the same university. Fatimah did not say anything about her memories of that day. It is only known that she hurried to the prayer hall and picked up his daughter Maryam and kicked her out of the university. (P. 110) Attending the lectures of Professor Mohammad Taghi Jafari was also one of the successes of Fatimah, who used to take Maryam with her. (P. 110)

     In September 1980, a few days before the start of the Iraq-Iran war, Fatimah's first granddaughter named Haniyeh, the child of Nasser and Zinat, was born. With the beginning of the imposed war, another part emerged in Fatimah's activities. She traveled extensively to the western regions of the country, turning the Naziabad neighborhood into one of the front-aid centers.

"Every day the women cooked soup and sold the dishes. His money was deposited in the accounts of the fronts. They sewed clothes for the front and made pickles. They bought a car Toyota with that money, filled it with public donations, and sent it to the fronts. Twenty people in the seminary were working to make soup. They cut the noodles themselves and made dough for bread. ” (P. 111)

She also established a women's seminary in Naziabad and gathered many students and teachers there. He also built the "Hosseiniyah of Qomۥs people" with the help of the people. (Pp. 111 and 112)

Another activity of Fatimah was to Join Ms. Esmat Farhadi (Ghaffari), head of the women's section of Imam Khomeini's Relief Committee, in the first years after the victory of the Revolution. At his invitation, she went to the guidance building in the Naziabad neighborhood and gave a speech.

By holding classes, meetings, and lectures, efforts were made to educate these women morally and spiritually. (P. 112) Fatimah and Ms. Ghaffari also met each other during Ayatollah Beheshti's weekly meetings in the Republican Party and had a warm and cordial relationship.

In 1980, Fatimah and her son Nasser took charge of two religious minority schools. Fatimah, who belonged to an Armenian, was admitted to the girls' school named Mariomanukian on Nejat-e-Elahi Street today, and Nasser took over the school of a Jewish minority called Danesh on Seyed Jamal-ud-Din Asadabadi Street today. (P. 113). In 1983, Fatimah took over the management of Bu'ali school in Yousefabad Square (p. 131).

On the March 27 of 1982, he learned of the martyrdom of her son Nasser in the arms of his brother Mohammad Reza in the Dasht-e Abbas operational area. On the September 8th of 1983, she learned of the martyrdom of her son-in-law Hassan Ameli (Mansoura's husband). (P. 134) For Mohammad Reza, also married the niece of Khair Habibollahi. (P. 130)

She was present at the march for the acquittal of the polytheists on July 31, 1987, and the massacre of Iranian pilgrims, and she was severely injured and his body was bruised by the blows of the batons of Saudi officials. (P. 139)

In the elections of the fourth term of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, she was elected by the Tabriz people and entered the Assembly as one of the representatives of that city, and on the 31st  of May, 1992, her credentials were approved by the Assembly. (P. 147) she was an active member of parliament. Accordingly, Kiomars Saberi drew a cartoon of her on the cover of one of the volumes of the magazine named "Gol Agha" and wrote, "Ms. Moghadam, do you have any comments?" (P. 164) During her representation, she had a warm and cordial relationship with Ms. Parvin Salihi, the wife of Martyr Morteza Labbafi Nejad, and Nafiseh Fayyaz Bakhsh, the sister of Martyr Mohammad Ali Fayyaz Bakhsh (pp. 166 and 167). "I am like a carrier for the Islamic Revolution; Put the burden of the revolution on my shoulders to carry it so that I get target." (P. 167)

He was eventually injured in a minor car accident while traveling with a driver on the Takab-Shahindaj road. Several people jumped down from the Land Rover in front of them and took them to Saqez clinic for treatment. Fatimah's leg was plastered there, but while she had to be discharged, she was scheduled to be taken to Sanandaj Hospital by ambulance. Fatimah did not reach Sanandaj and it was announced that she was dead. According to Ms. Zarepour, the men who were taking Fatimah to Sanandaj were members of the Komala group, and Ms. Fatimah Homayoun Moghadam was martyred on the January of 24th, 1996, equal to 16th day of Ramadan. (P. 171) Of course, her daughter recalls: "A few days ago, Fatimah told Mansoura that she had been threatened that if she was going to be a candidate for parliament again, she would be killed. Fatimah had told these words to several other people as well." (P. 171)

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Is oral history the words of people who have not been seen?

Some are of the view that oral history is useful because it is the words of people who have not been seen. It is meant by people who have not been seen, those who have not had any title or position. If we look at oral history from this point of view, it will be objected why the oral memories of famous people such as revolutionary leaders or war commanders are compiled.

Daily Notes of a Mother

Memories of Ashraf-al Sadat Sistani
They bring Javad's body in front of the house. His mother comes forward and says to lay him down and recite Ziarat Warith. His uncle recites Ziarat and then tells take him to the mosque which is in the middle of the street and pray the funeral prayer (Ṣalāt al-Janāzah) so that those who do not know what the funeral prayer is to learn it.

A Critique on Oral history of War Commanders

“Answering Historical Questions and Ambiguities Instead of Individual-Organizational Identification”
“Oral history of Commanders” is reviewed with the assumption that in the field of war historiography, applying this method is narrated in an advancing “new” way, with the aim of war historiography, emphasizing role of commanders in creation of its situations and details.
A cut from memoirs of Jalil Taeffi

Escaping with camera

We were in the garden of one of my friends in "Siss" on 26th of Dey 1357 (January 16, 1979). We had gone for fun. It was there that we heard the news of Shah's escape from the local people. They said that the radio had announced. As soon as I heard this news, I took a donkey and went on its back.