The Dusty Calks, The Expelled, Team of Haj Hadi and …

Oral History and memories of Holy Defense Narrated by the Five Books

Elham Saleh
Translated by Rohollah Golmoradi

2016-9-28


A more year was spent from distance between events of Saddam Hossein imposed war against Iran and us, and we met the commemoration of Sacred Defense Week in 2016. If we treat beginning of the war as the source, 36 years has spent and if it would be last of the war, 28 years has spent. Products and series that are the signs of the spent years and efforts in order to recording events of the war are books and libraries. On the occasion of this Sacred Defense Week, we brought you five books in a pack among the books that we have received a copy of them in office of Oral History of Iran Website, so thereby hangs a tale.

 

From Victory of the Revolution till Releasing Khorramshahr

There are some characterized paths on the book cover. Behind the paths, you see a face. He is major general Mohammad Ali Jafary. The paths on the cover are designed on the calk; a semitransparent paper which is used in cartography, designing and copying.  Calks are the background and major general Jafary is foreground; title is also imprinted on the blue background: ''The Dusty Calks''1  

Major general Jafary studied architecture. The image on the cover alongside the title ''The Dusty Calks'' is an intellectual selection. A choose that reader will understand it after reading the book.

''The Dusty Calks'' has 11 Chapters: "The Guy of Yazd, Najafabad", "Till Art Faculty", "Khomeini, EY Emam", "Students of Imam's line", "in Cultural Revolution", "The Breaking Siege of Susangerd", "Victory of an Idea", "Spouse or Co-entrenchment", "Brigade 1 of Ashura", "with Headquarter of Operation Qods, in Fath Battle"and "Toward Beit-ol-Moqaddas (Jerusalem)".

The first chapter, "The guy of Najafabad", starts in childhood, in a family with 10 children, from mornings with bread and cheese and school (Maktab): "in mornings, before going to School, my mother put bread and cheese, sometimes bread and cucumber and tomato, in a small handkerchief on a bundle and gave me. Then she said Ayat al-Kursi and Salawat, and sent me to the school."

Major general Jafary went in school next years. Chapter 2 is about the issue: "the higher educational level would lead in more political information. I knew the king of Iran is a dictator, corrupt and dependent person in foreign countries, and the issue that was not important for him was country interests and Iranian. As much as my hatred of the Shah was increased Visa versa my interest and love in Ayatollah Khomeini, that had rooted in my heart as childhood after seeing a small photo of him in hand of one of my familiar and hearing some stories of braveness of that gracious, would increase more and more."

In the early chapters of "The Dusty Calks", pure mood of childhood and adolescence continues during university.in the chapters one can read about Yazd with traditional architecture of its houses, its cisterns and traditional foods. But as the book continues, the atmosphere changes gently and from childhood approaches springtime and enthusiasm for struggle. November 04, 1978 is one of major general Jafary's memories about this time: "at the day I was among protesters and directly was seeing that people, especially students, was exceling academicians. Movement of Tehran students in November 04, 1978 was so power that cooked completely goose of so-called educated and claimant for pioneering in public struggles of the university."

The next memories of the book are devoted to egression of Shah from Iran, Victory of the Revolution, cultural revolution and narrator and his co-university's activities in order to reconstructing buildings of the poor in south of Tehran.

One of student memories is also about Siege of Espionage Den (U.S .Embassy): "most of the pioneer students were of Technical and Medical faculties. The important person of us was our dear martyr Mohsen Vazvaei. It had been set Mr. Kamal Tabrizi shooting all stages of the siege by his super 8 camera. There was so crowded that controlling people was not simple. Some guys and I stood in front of the entrance and made a human wall to prevent others and unknown people enter campus of the embassy. I don't remember exact time of complete siege of the embassy. Maybe it lasted two or three hours so that the guys could dominate all departmental and non-departmental districts of the US embassy and arresting working American and Iranian personnel there."

Events of the Imposed War of Iraq against Iran such as The Breaking Siege of Susangerd, Ashura's brigade 1 activities, change in managing the battle, Operation Imam Ali (AS), Operation Imam Mahdi (a.s), Operation Tariq al-Qods and Operation Fath ol-Mobin are described from chapter 6 and are ended with liberating Khorramshahr.  The book was intended would include memories of major general Jafary to the last of the Imposed War but as he wanted compiling other events delayed, so "The Dusty Calks" includes just summer of 1956 to summer of 1982.

"The Dusty Calks" which is formulated in form of oral history starts by narrator's note and has 5 appendixes. Some of these are the document of correspondence of co-commander of Karbala's central headquarter with dependent headquarters, matters of challenges between commander of Karbala's central headquarter and joint general staff of Islamic Republic of Iran over operating plan of Karbala-3, complete text of speech of Amir Brigadier General Mohammad Javadi, martial commander of minor headquarter of Qods 3, two narratives of martyrs Ali Sayad Shirazi and Mohammad Ebrahim Hemmat and selected reports of events of the initial stage of Operation "Beit ol-Moqaddas." Important point is that moreover the appendixes there are some appendixes in the last of each chapter in which explain the events more.

Document and images part has also various photos; of father house, school of "Talimate Eslami (Islamic education)" to photos of operational regions. There are also documents in the district like "written instruction of Sardar (a title in Sepah, roughly equivalnt to "General") Aziz Jafary to explaining tasks of personnel of artillery and instrument s watcher in Operation Imam Mahdi (a.s)" and "comprehensive plan of Operation Fath ol-mobin in routes of Shush -west of Dezful." In terms of comprehensiveness of the document, it is necessary to be a typed text alongside image of the manuscripts.

There are photos of martyrs of Student Followers of the Imam's Line in the last part of chapter 4. The photos help the comprehensiveness of the book and it is a kind of paying a tribute to them but in terms of that there is a part  named "photos and documents" it would be better that it would be in the same part. References and index in the last of the book also provide it for the audience as he/she was wished could read the references which are mentioned in the book.

"The Dusty Calks" illustrates part of history of the war as major general Jafary views. History of the war has many untold that people who experienced it directly could complement it by stating their memories.

 

 

Frank Memories of Martyr Moharrami about the War

We can feel and touch the war through oral memories. Memories that maybe be personal for everyone but alongside the other memories form a set as the name of memories of the war. People who talk about the battle form oral history of the war. Martyr Haj Ahmad Alafi also narrates the same memories. Formulating "The expelled"2 is related to the time that he was alive. Memories of martyr Moharrami, which is about 48 hours of cassette has recorded and rewritten, make another part of the oral memories of the war.

"The Expelled" in a sentence and very simple statement is a description of memories of martyr Sardar Haj Ahmad Moharrami Alafi (uncle), but it cannot be so easily defined. Memories of martyr Muharrami begins in his childhood, since he lived with his family in a difficult situation, of the days when he was in the shadow of his father to the days when the shadow disappeared. It was hard times, became harder. Teenager Ahmad so he could he continued his education but after a time there was no longer be able to study, not the situation of his life allowed: "I educated in this situation:No shoes, no hat, I closed my trousers instead of elastic by thread and  wore tattered shoe-like without socks and I got my way. In winter when a meter of snow fell on the land I put nylon and plastic on the tattered so that my feet do not freeze. I just went to school and to work also. When I arrived after School - in the evening – my feet were not my own...; I went to the "eighth" class and then I left and honey was sweet but the bee stings and get rid of it!"

Then serving as a soldier comes slowly, after some time, due to concern for his mother ran away, again was working and finally exempted.

The clashes of the days of the revolution, victory the Islamic Revolution, disorder in some villages and addressing the disorders, the trial of cruel people (like case of "Zali Khan" that tyrannized the people of the villages "Shally" and "Damirchi" and eventually was executed) are another part of martyr Muharrami's oral memories which are collected in this book. Days of eight years of Sacred Defense has also its detailed description. In all these memories, martyr Moharrami bluntly tells stories. The irony in his words makes memories sweet and leads encouraging audience to continue reading. Through the memories of the narrator one can understand that eight years of Sacred Defense was undertook by people who their most important property was devotion and self-sacrifice. People who most of them learned how to fight from war and the war grew them slowly. Martyr Moharrami introduces war and warriors as they were, and the narrator is introduced as he was; passionately and unequivocally that the individual sentences of the book proves it.

"The Expelled" has six chapters. No title for this chapters, but parts of the book has. "once upon a time", "Well-formed Guard", "Exile", "Ashura's Brigade," " Detections of Mashdi !!", "gene ne oldu? (What happened again)", "Owner, Kid of Gisha and Ebrahim (Abraham) Karate," "Jack of all Trades in the Headquarter ","Beautiful Shores of the Rhine ","The Footsteps of Water ",اوزساید یغیوی قیراغا، گور فلک نه ساییر (if you give up, see what is your fate("and" Rental Upper Room and Gimcrack Doctor" are titles of some of these parts.

Using conversations in Turkish is seen in the text. Persian translations are written alongside Turkish sentences; using the words added to the charm of the book, however, it is difficult to read the text. I wish the author by using methods (such as showing the Turkish texts in a single row or presenting them in footnote) would apply both the same Turkish sentences and make reading these sentences simpler.

And title of the book, "The Expelled." The name is now reminder of the name of a movie. But it is better to know that this book released a few years before, for the first time, making and playback of its namesake movie. Those who are familiar with Sacred Defense books supposed strongly that the film director borrowed name of its work from the book. In addition to title of the book, the name of one of the parts (Beautiful Shores of the Rhine) is also reminder of name of a movie. This part, in addition to its title, has reminiscences of the narrator's treatment of injured foot of the film which gives life parts of "From Karkheh to the Rhine." in the mind.

Martyr Moharrami smiles deeply into the audience, the audience may be a fighter, a friend, perhaps a camera lens. This photo has been selected as design of cover but it is clear that the quality is not sufficient. That's why it has been tried to compensate poor quality of photo with graphic tricks, but this has not happened. Other graphic features of the book is its title that written in red inside pages. As well as, in Personal information page combination of gray and red color has been used. In the list, chapters are separated by the color red, but I wish it was used graphical tricks in separating chapters inside the book. The "Photos Album" also includes photos of the martyr Muharrami. Most of the photos has explanation and even people inside the photo are introduced respectively, but this has not done for some the photos that author mentioned its reason in part of the preface: "photo Album of martyr are soundless photos without explanation. We chose some of them and wherever it was not informed of the time and place and its persons, we placed them in a corner in the same situation in order to say secret with readers in silent."

Martyr Moharrami has defined multiple diaries in "The Expelled". The memory is about his injury: "There was no one ... I wanted to stand, I saw don't have a leg! And I loosened my hands which I had columned, and I stared at my amputated foot that was on the soil and it was attached to the top of my left knee by a blood-red runlet and clinging part to my body, the same piece of meat. I still hadn't pained, but my femoral artery tore open like tip of a hose and bled... Smoke and dust engulfed all around me and my cry was lost in the ambiguous winding that had busied my mind and was choked ... I took front my dead foot, I opened immediately its bootlace and without deciding and that wanted to know what is happening, I fastened tip of my artery hose (from my hip) and I hard pressed to stop bleeding that was not stopped, but step down... ."

Martyr Moharrami was so repartee. This characteristic makes some calls inside the book to read over and over again: "I went and saw eh daddy, things are not so casual too. This is the main operating room and apparatus operating room is ready. I had these thoughts that Hindi doctor helped me to lie down and then As usual began to stumbling of pre- anesthesia...

- Sir, what happened, your finger was cut?

- No, my hand!

- This one that has been cut, we cut two other hey!

- It does not matter, be careful about your work.

- You can no longer shooting because you do not have finger!

- no problem. I'll shoot with other hand.

- will you go to war again after operation?

Yeah, as soon as I get rid of you, directly go to the front.

- at the time he set an ampoule and injected it into serum that was connected to my vessel and again bullshitted and I also... oh, oh ...

My eyes were bleary more and more ...."

Martyr Moharrami has a memory about command of collecting illuminated mines in a quarter, but it lasted two hours to neutralize mines. He instead of neutralizing, in his own words, landed out together mines with wire and goad, "as mines were in my armpits, I was continuing that one of them burst and exploded. Now is nearly evening and there is a fear to being exposed the operation and there was no way except that I must turned it off in anyway. First I poured all the mines and threw exploded mine away; I was worried otherwise if illuminated mine turn off by throwing away, it would not call mine. I was picked it up and poured soil over it and was not turned off still and … there was no way. I put mine on soils and sat down on it! ... And this time we together began to burn. Trousers was burnt completely before telling one (did not have to count to three!) After that my thighs were unskinned and then waited until the smell of burned flesh that the mine was over and I got up and stood. I was sweating badly and now all of my body was burning. Anyway we walked to come back.... "

 

 

Haj Hadi and his team

"The team of Haj Hadi"3 is a book full of memories; memories of the eight years of Sacred Defense, about people who were not formally and procedural engaging in war, but their hearts led them to defend the faith and homeland. Maybe they used weapon less, their weapon was attempts that they did to improve conditions of soldiers in the fronts.

Who is Haj Hadi? The answer is in the initial parts of "Team of Haj Hadi". Part of "Haj Hadi Joneidi, a man in the sea of men" describes him in a nutshell, but there are parts that introduce Haj Hadi in the language of Haj Hadi; "My Father", " Adolescence", "Hijra", "of the Team of Ghasemis Nobavegan (Youths) to the War"," Soldiering"," US Lackey", "Divine Grace", " the Second Reward" and " God Gave Me a House", are the parts that Haj Hadi is narrator. Teen Hadi that was both studying and working in the liver shop, he who moved to Tehran with his family at age fifteen and founded team of "Qasemi's Nobavegan ", soldiered, married and bought a house, he tells these himself ; simple stories of his life.

But the other parts are expressed by another people. They are team of Haj Hadi; educators, farmers, self-employed, drivers and truckers, employees and kebab chefs. Women, who were active in the War Support Staff, also should be added to this list. They are at different ages, from teens 10 year to 80 years old man. The common feature of all of them was that they were doing everything they could to the front. Haj Hadi and his team were engaged in activities in a group form and spontaneously.

To be familiar with their name it is enough to refer "Introduction of Author". The introduction describes the aim publication of the book, Haj Hadi and his team and their activities. List also includes a long list of names that the titles of memories are also alongside them.

There were all age and educational groups in team of Haj Hadi. Women were also part of the team that helped in the works of supporting. One of the works was packing Eve nuts to the fronts, "Nowruz that approached Haj Hadi's team ordered haft-seen table of the front. A truck of nuts and seeds was brought and unloaded. Women gathered and were busy packing. Generally nuts and seeds are tempting so much. Imagine, there are laughing bags of pistachio in front of you and you cannot eat them. Or thin skin almonds and dried berries and green raisins, and because of the front you reject your desire. To overcome the temptations of Satan, respectively, one of Miss became sponsor and bought some nuts with his own money and invited all people."

This part of Haj Hadi's team were engaged in a variety of tasks; washing things that were brought from the front, separating goods such as dry goods, fresh fruit and vegetables, pickles and preserves, packaging goods, and ... this work has been done for the sake of God, but there were and are always people who slander. Some women of Haj Hadi's team in the book have said about vitriol of the accusations "slander after slander, shortly there wasn't a day that we weren't treated as guilty and not issued a decree against us. But for the sake of God, martyrs and Imam we were prepared to endure all harshness ... Now years after war, we still hear the same talks against ourselves. If the life situation looks good, if our children aren't unemployed and have a good life, those always creditor people believe that the good life is result of favoritism and endless rewards of the Nezam (government apparatus) to us."

Men of Haj Hadi's team have also interesting memories of the group; memories both bitter and sweet that have not been even listened. Distribution of ice cream in front is one of the memories, "ten or eleven months before the end of the war, Haj Hadi delivered ice cream chefs group with all facilities and raw materials and freezer into the Faw area. Haj Hassan Torabi was responsible for all costs who dedicated all his life and capital throughout the war for the fronts. Mahmood qanad (confectioner) made a traditional ice cream in Faw that I have not seen yet date like that throughout the country. He made ice creams and Haj Hassan Torabi and others brought them to the front line and gave them to the fighters."

Haj Hadi's team had visited almost all fronts except Persian Gulf and its islands that it was also visited at the end of the war. They also cook for the fighters in this part of Iran, " there were about four or five battalions of different unit of the Army and Sepah were stationed in Abu Musa. We camped there eleven days. At this time we lodged all the forces by cooking gourmet and different cuisines. Because of extreme heat, you could not see anyone at all hours of the day. All in their homes or offices spent day under the cold wind of air conditioning. But Haj Hadi's team set up baking ovens in outdoor and their only shelter against scorching sun was shade of trees and nothing else. The day that ended our mission in all islands of Persian Gulf, we were like black Africans."

The book is well-formed. The cover shows a man stirring contents of a pot. Part of Haj Hadi and his team activities was cooking food for the fighters, so it was a suitable choice for the cover. Pages inside the book have acceptable graphics. Memories are distinguished. Title of the memory is located within a colorless rectangle and the name of the narrator within a gray rectangle. "Pictures and Documents" depicts Haj Hadi and his team in terms of photographs. This part starts with sentence of "those were the days, good days." In most pages of the part, each page contains two photos and in some pages there is only one photo. All the photos are explained and the most important people, respectively, are identified. From title to footnote, from photo to its explanation and ... "Haj Hadi's team" almost has all the principles of a good book.

 

 

A Different Narrator

The title is ambiguous for someone who is not familiar with the local language. "Hassan Tishi"4 is more similar to a title, but it is not all the story. Hassan is a person's name and "Tishi" in Gilaki language means "yours". Mother of "Hassan Sheikhshaabani" (Moradi) entrusted her son to his sister as he grew up, once she said "Umm Layla ", "Hassan Tishi" means Hassan is yours. However this caption is vague it is an attractive choice. In this book, different people who the most important is Umm Layla Hassanzade talk about characteristics of martyr Hassan Sheikhshaabani (Moradi). It is one of books of a series called "oral history of Sacred Defense's warriors."

The narrator of most chapters is Umm Layla Hassanzadeh. The first child is about 78 years old and has always worked in all these years, whether at father home or at the home of her husband. She has worked in rice field with her parent ,and after marriage and since 17 years old she was housewife, both stacked rice with horse and cooked breakfast, lunch and evening meal for workers. Umm Layla took care of her for a year. He had no children, took care of one of her nephew in law also took Hassan. For this reason, unlike the conventional practice in which usually people like father, mother, sister, brother, husband or son express their memories of the martyr, here martyr's aunt express her memories.

She, as narrator, says about a period that was engaged behind the front along with other women. Memories of childhood and adolescence of Hassan are also expressed by Umm Layla. But the book has other narrators; Ahmad Beiginezhad, commander of operation of Jundallah army in Baneh, Fatemeh Soghra, mother of martyr, Ahmad Marhaba, his neighbor and fellow and Shahram Sharifi, his fellow, are some of these narrators who speak of his faith and moral . All memories of this book are also narrated by the first person.

It was written on the cover "oral history of Sacred Defense warriors", but "Hassan Tishi", instead of being a book in the form of oral history, fits in the category of memoirs. Most of memories are dedicated Umm Layla's memories about Hassan. What the narrators say in the book, are more personal narratives and memories of this martyr to his participation in the operations. Through the memories, his moral character is also described.

Using first-person narrator is one of the easiest angles for writing. It was also used in "Hassan Tishi" the first-person narrator. The book does not have a particular style that make the object easy for each audience. Although precious memories, but are ordinary, simple narratives of life. Except memories of Umm Layla that is longer, other memories are narrated in shorter parts that the shortness will accelerate reading. The interviewer tried to identify to the audience different parts of character of martyr Hassan Sheikhshaabani (Moradi) by increasing number of narrators in the book, but number of narrators not helped the issue.

"Hassan Tishi" is formulated in 3 volumes that 2 volumes include memories. The third volume also contains documents of martyr's testament, pictures and documents. Note that the index is included in the volume which is a little odd. It would better that the index located after testament, pictures and documents.

Formulating books about story of martyrs of Sacred Defense, in itself, is something worthwhile because turn the page of the war and at the same time introducing each martyr, show part of the whole war. Publication "Hassan Tishi" is admirable in terms of the view, but what makes this book different is the narrator, one who is not among first-degree relatives. Umm Layla Hassanzade was mother for whose wasn't her child, but she loved him like her own child. Martyr Hassan Sheikhshaabani (Moradi) also loved her like her own mother; one of martyrs of the eight-year Sacred Defense from territory of Gilan. He was born in the village of Langerud, Pir Poshteh1965.

He undertook for a while training of Sepah of Gilan and was one of officials of intelligence of Operation corps 16 of Qods in Guilan. Hassan Sheikhshaabani (Moradi) martyred in Operation Karbala-2 in Hajomran 1986.

 

 

From Chemical to mice of Hour-al-Azim

"All Lanterns Off"5; in this book, the war and its events are presented in terms of Bozorgirad. When he voluntarily went to the front, was a teenager 13 years old. "Family During Time", "the War", "Manjil", "strawberry mine and taste of Hour-al-Azim ", "Kamyaran, Haft Tepeh and ...", "Majnoon Island ", "Operation Nasr 8, Bridge of Fortress Chulan", "Valfajr 10, Manuscript Quran and Continuous Line of Martyrdom,'' a Not Read Letter and Cup of Poison ","Presence in Front after the Resolution" and" identification ", are titles of the chapters of the book that according to the title questions asked.

The book hasn't a good start. The first question is a general question: "Please introduce yourself and tell us a little about your family history." The next question is nearly like the first question: "How many brothers and sisters do you have? Talk about them a little."

The questions are very important in oral history. These are questions that form answers. The more general is question, the answer is more general. Asking more detailed questions is the key to success in interviews and in particular in interviews that are used in formulating oral history. The first question must be both enthusing interviewee and encouraging the audience to reading. This is more important in "All Lanterns Off" which is questions formed. The interviewer could regulate these questions in the form of a short biography. What that is missing in this book.

There are questions in rest of the book in matter of "Reminiscence" that the interviewer had to ask them to acquire more information. The last question is also about employment in Sepah ''did you propose to be recruited in Sepah?" it was better that the question should be asked as to finally there would be a good conclude for the book: "was Fuman the same city that you expected when you returned from the war? Was living in the battle as living in the city?"

But in general, the questions posed by Majid Bozorgirad may well convey the atmosphere of those days. Perhaps if the book was published in the form of mere reports or reminiscence, it couldn't be well transferring issues.

The book begins with questions about Mojid Bozorgirad Family. These questions slowly take a more general form and enter battle space in second chapter. One of the questions is also about leaving school and going to the front: "motive of abandon school for the war was not unusual in 1984. One cannot understand it unless being in the same situation. When you see things in the city at every moment, like martyrs, crowd and  ... or you have to go meet your friends in the hospital while they missed their hands or feet or not! In these circumstances there is no room for thinking and stay, and we had to go and we went."

Front conditions, warriors communicate with each other operations and chemical bombardment are some of the themes that are examined in "All Lanterns off". Bozorgirad quoted in part of the book about Saddam Hussein's army use of chemical weapons: "Iraq in operation Karbala-5, one of the defensive tactics that used was using chemical weapons. It kept area in a percentage of chemical contamination. They looked at the wind, when the wind cleared chemicals, immediately shot the next bullet and the next and the next bullets ... once by plane, once by mortar. They kept space contaminated. Most of that was used was a nerve agent known as mustard. ... It affected the respiratory system and nerve."

Fooman conditions after the war is another topic that being talk: "We've come from another space. We were emerging from a stream that had a different atmosphere ... things that we saw during the day and night not things that can be seen everywhere. Cannon and quiver and bullets, tanks and airplane and martyr and wounded and operation and … we were dealing with these things. When we came back our city, we saw one is metering. One is studying. One is also soldiering. This space was heterogeneous for us in this respect."

One could well recognize difficulties and hardness of formulating oral history by reading preface of author of "All Lanterns Off". In addition, the author note reveals another hints; development of oral history of Gilan warriors has started among students and grouped and collecting material has been spontaneous and public. This book is the first book of oral history of Sacred Defense in Fuman and Fumanat and the narrator even criticizes the situation of history period of the book. Providing such information leads audience expects corresponding to the book.

The pictures that are recorded through the lens of a camera, both can be used as a memento and a document. The photos of "All Lanterns Off" are also the same. During recording they had merely a memento function, but now by watching them, in addition to being alive the past days, are also used as document; documents that indicate which ages and under what conditions presented at the front. All of photos have photo description, and all members are introduced to the audience. Knowing that the interviewee was in how situation at the time is not unpleasant.

Cover is a design of a lantern and the title "All Lanterns Off." Dot over the letter "F" is the flame of lantern. Cover colors is a combination of light gray and dirty pink. Colors are beautiful together. Coordination of the text and design continues to back cover. Part of gray and pink colors also continued to back cover. The sentences have been chosen on the back cover to introduce the book for "Nazari gathered the guys and started talking.  He said "turn off lanterns or lessen it to the lowest level." They turned off some of them and brought some down. He told, "the guys suppose tonight is Ashura night. Not that I am Imam Hossein but I am a follower of him. I want to tell you that the army commander ordered everyone who is able return to the line ...."It was a scene that made everyone sobbing. The guys had seen war is not joking with anybody. Choosing between life and death was not joking."

Being in the war has its specific bitter and sweet memories. One of the memories of Majid Bozorgirad is about famous rats of Hour that nibbled Nail "I don't know why they nibbled nail. There was no way to stop it. The only way to prevent nibbling your nail was remain awake. The initial effects of nail-nibbling were wound and erosion, but I think it undermined power of your body and weakened body in long time. Like dirty drinking water that we drunk in a forced situation and its impact was not known at that time, but now we have severe stomach ache. The nails wound also lasted about 10-15 days to be meliorated. They didn't nibble my fingernails, but they nibbled all every ten nails of my toes with skin under the nail! They nibbled nails of one of friend's hands and feet so that his hand was all bloody. Comrades because of much tiredness did not realize and they were so professional that in the morning you saw they nibbled all of your nails. On the one hand, bombs and mortars and on the other hand a transmitter mouse of various diseases. We could do nothing."

 

1-The Dusty Calks; Volume I: summer 1956 to summer 1982; oral memories of Major general Mohammad Ali (Aziz) Jafary, memorialist: Golali Babaei, the Office of Resistance Literature and Art and Soore Mehr Publiacations, 2012, 638 p. 

2-The Expelled: memories of martyr Sardar Ahmad Haj Moharrami Alafi (uncle), Author: Gholamreza gholizadeh, Interview: Musa Qayour, Institute of Major General martyr Haj Ahmad Kazemi, second edition, 2014, 488 pages.

3- Haj Hadi's Team: memories of Veterans of Support Jihad of Varamin, Jafar Kazemi, Foundation of Martyrs and Veterans Affairs, Department of Research and Cultural Relations, Shahed Publication, 2012, 414 pages.

4-Hassan Tishi: parts of life of martyr Hassan Sheikhshaabani (Moradi), Interview and compilation: Seyede Nesa Hashemian Sigaroudi, unit of resistance literature of Art Institute of Gilan and Soore Mehr Publications, 2013, 194 pages.

5- All Lanterns Off: oral history of Majid Bozorgirad, interview: Seyed Mehdi Naimi, compilation: Mohammadhossein Bagheri, unit of resistance literature of Art Institute of Gilan and Soore Mehr Publications, 2012, 202 pages.



 
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After the victory of the Islamic revolution, the people of Oramanat area and the Sunni people of Kermanshah Province, unlike most cities in northern Kurdistan were alongside the Islamic Republic system ...

“Internal Reaction” published

Apart from the student activities and massive demonstrations in the years 1352 to 1354 (1973-1975), another part of my activities was the books I was writing myself. Of course, before they turned into books, I used to lend them in the form of nameless pamphlets in university libraries. Many harmful writings or books were taken to the mountains or transferred to other universities, sometimes even abroad.